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Mexico's historic climate law: an analysis


By: Christina MCcain


Source: blogs.edf.org/climatetalks




While environmental issues were not center stage in Mexico’s recent election, Mexico’s new president, whether he is yet aware of it or not, will inherit a tremendous opportunity for win-wins on environmental stewardship and combating the country's pressing economic challenges through Mexico’s new climate law.


The new General Law on Climate Change allows Mexico to deploy economically efficient mechanisms (like the development of emissions trading) that offer enormous opportunities for reducing the country’s greenhouse gas emissions and could truly transform Mexico into a 21st century, clean energy economy. The country’s presumed president-elect, Enrique Peña Nieto, and his administration will hold a great deal of power in both making this a reality – and making it their own.


Outgoing President Felipe Calderón signed the legislation into law just days before June's G-20 Summit in Mexico and the Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development. It sets out ambitious, but achievable, mitigation goals and establishes critical machinery for setting the country on a sustainable, low-carbon development path.


But like many pieces of broad and potentially transformative legislation, much will be determined through the details of its implementation.


While the law is landmark in many ways, some key elements – such as its national targets for reducing emissions and the option to develop a domestic emissions trading system – are not mandatory, nor does the law itself spell out specific sanctions for not meeting those targets.


Absolute, legally binding caps are the surest way to achieve Mexico’s goals of reducing carbon emissions; given the law's lack of such a cap, the absolute strength of the law and whether it accomplishes its mitigation goals will depend on political will and leadership. 


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